LED Panel Lights 

China Bans “Foreign Waste” set off alarm bells

July 10, 2018 | LED Panel Lights | Permalink

 

British media said that the Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Agency Erik Solheim said on the 29th that China’s crackdown on the import of plastic “foreign waste” should be a signal to rich countries to strengthen recycling and reduce non-essential products such as plastic straws.

 

Reuters reported on January 29th that China is the main recipient of more than half of Western countries’ plastic waste exports. Since China banned the import of “foreign waste” including some grades of plastic and paper waste, some western ports have already accumulated large amounts of waste. . Solheim, who once served as Norway’s environment minister, called for the developed countries to reconsider the use of plastics after this month’s China regulations came into force. Do not simply think about finding places to dump overseas. He said: “I have heard some Europeans complain about China’s decision. We should regard this decision as a benefit to the Chinese people and a warning for the rest of the world.”

 

He said, “There are many products that we don’t need at all.” The most typical example is plastic particles, which are mostly used in cosmetics such as facial scrubs or abrasives in toothpaste, but they are used in global oceans, rivers, and lakes. There is pollution. Solheim agreed with the ban on the use of plastic particles. The United States passed a law prohibiting the use of plastic particles in 2015. Similar UK laws also came into effect this month.

 

Reported that there are also straws, he said: “Ordinary Americans consume 600 straws each year, resulting in a lot of plastic waste sorting machine, everyone can drink water directly from the cup or bottle.” He suggested that restaurants and bars can post “If you It does require straws. We can provide instructions such as “Some companies have reduced the use of straws.”

 

Solheim said companies including Coca-Cola, Nestle and Danone are taking steps to increase the recycling rate of plastic products, or switch to biodegradable packaging materials. Kenya has banned the use of plastic bags. However, he said, “This issue is very serious. The government and companies need to make greater efforts.”

 

The report said that he said that it is much better for countries to handle the waste generated in their own country than to find new waste exporters. He added that after the ban was issued in China, “the emerging countries like India and Vietnam have not clearly shown their willingness to take over these wastes.”

 

led panelLEDPanel Test

March 23, 2018 | LED Panel Lights | Permalink

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Eingesetzt werden LED Panels immer dann, wenn ein Raum oder eine Flche mglichst gleichmig aber unaufdringlich und stromsparend beleuchtet werden soll. Zustzlich ist z.B. eine LED Deckenleuchte auch optisch deutlich ansprechender als viele andere Lampen oder Leuchtstoffrhren.

So wird es dir gelingen, ein hochwertiges LED Leuchtpanel zu einem guten PreisLeistungsverhltnis zu bekommen.

Es wird bei den Farbtemperaturen unterschieden zwischen

Gute LED Flchenleuchten, also LED Panels erreichen locker auch mal bis zu . Lumen.

LED Panel mit einer IPSchutzklasse mit einer an der zweiten Stelle also z.B. IP sind sogar gegen einen Wasserstrahl aus beliebiger Richtung geschtzt.

Wer auf Nummer Sicher gehen will, dass das LED Panel den Wetterkapriolen Stand hlt, sollte sich die angegebene IPKlasse genau anschauen. Grundlegend gilt hierbei, dass die Schutzklassen mit einer an der zweiten Stelle also z.B. IP und IP zeigen, dass das LED Panel gegen Spritzwasser geschtzt ist.

Da der Stromverbrauch bei LED Flchenleuchten auch noch viel niedriger ist als bei bspw. Natriumdampflampen kann somit auch viel Geld gespart werden.

Denn es verbraucht bei gleicher Helligkeit mehr Strom Watt.

LED Panel Wenn du eine Alternative zu einer klassischen Zimmer oder Schreibtischlampe suchst, knnte ein modernes LED Panel die Lsung fr dich sein

Durch die weitere Nutzung der Seite stimmst du der Verwendung von Cookies zu.Weitere InformationenAkzeptieren

Dadurch knnen durch die nachtrgliche Anschaffung eines entsprechenden Netzteils auch bereits gekaufte LED Panels nachtrglich dimmbar gemacht werden.

Auch hier lautet die Antwort eindeutig ja. Es gibt spezielle LED Panel, die ein VollspektrumLicht bieten und damit besonders gut fr die Aufzucht von Pflanzen geeignet sind. Denn dadurch erhalten die Pflanzen das natrlichste Licht, wie sie es sonst nur in der Natur bekommen.

LED Panels bzw. LED Deckenpanel sind die moderne Alternative zu unansehnlichen Lampen mit Leuchtstoffrhren oder leuchtschwache Arbeitsplatzbeleuchtungen. Denn sie sind insbesondere deswegen zur Raumbeleuchtung geeignet, da ihr Licht diffus und nicht blendend und mit einem breiten Abstrahlwinkel abgegeben wird. Dadurch bringen sie Licht dorthin, wo es gerade intensiv gebraucht wird Arbeitsflchen, Bad, Kche etc. und verteilen es gleichzeitig besonders gleichmig und nicht aufdringlich blendend.

StromverbrauchEin weiteres wichtiges Kriterium bei der Auswahl des richtigen LED Panels ist natrlich der Stromverbrauch.

Zustzlich existieren mittlerweile LED Panel am Markt, deren Farbtemperatur einstellbar ist. So kann die LED Deckenleuchte beispielsweise an jeden neuen Arbeitszweck angepasst werden.

Ein warmweies Licht entspricht in etwa dem Licht frherer Glhbirnen, ein Tageslichtwei demgegenber dem frherer Leuchtstoffrhren, wie sie in Kchen oder Badezimemrn gerne verwendet wurden.

Wer es noch sicherer mag, legt Wert auf eine an der zweiten stelle also z.B. IP . Ein solches LED Panel wrde dann sogar ein kurzes Eintauchen in Wasser schadlos berstehen.

So steht einem Einbau des LED Panel in Badezimmer, Dusche, Feuchtraum oder im Auenbereich outdoor nichts mehr im Wege.

Hierbei handelt es sich in der Regel um eine flache, viereckige Platte, die ein bisschen wie eine groe Fliese aussieht. Die meisten LED Leuchtpanel sind mit einem Trafo oder Netzteil ausgestattet, der er es mittels Strom zum Leuchten bringt.

Um einen Fehlkauf zu vermeiden, sollte man bei der Produktauswahl auf ein paar Aspekte schauen. Glcklicherweise gibt es hierbei nicht allzu viele und so geht die Auswahl anhand der folgenden Punkte schnell von der Hand.

Gibt es auch wasserdichte LED Panel fr Badezimmer und den Auenbereich?

Zustzlich sind viele LED Panel nocht mit weiteren Features ausgestattet wie Controller also einer Fernbedienung, Aufbaurahmen, Bewegungsmelder, Himmel oder AquariumOptik.

PreisLeistungsVerhltnisZuletzt sollte man noch einen kritischen Blick auf den Preis werfen und sich fragen, ob die gebotene Leistung und der Preis zusammen passen. Wenn dies auch der Fall ist, steht einem Kauf nichts mehr im Wege und wir knnen nur noch viel Spa mit dem neuen LED Panel wnschen.

FunktionsumngZustzlich sollte man noch die technischen Daten insgesamt prfen und schauen, ob das gewnschte Modell ber alle bentigten Zusatzfeatures verfgt. So wird oft ein zustzlicher Dimmer gewnscht, um die Helligkeit des LED Panels flexibel dimmbar zu machen.

Mit speziellen Ausstattungen lsst sich der Einsatzbereich noch erweitern

Um keinen Fehlkauf zu ttigen solltest du dieTipps Tricks in unserem FAQBereichnher anschauen.

FarbtemperaturEs gibt LED Panels mit den unterschiedlichsten Farbtemperaturen. Dabei ist nicht jede Farbtemperatur fr jeden Einsatz und Ort geeignet, da die Farbtemperatur unmittelbaren Einfluss auf die Stimmung des Raumes/Ortes hat. So knnte eine zu kalte Farbtemperatur im Wohnzimmer beispielsweise die gemtliche Stimmung kaputt machen. Ein zu warmes Licht im Bro knnte hingegen kein angenehmes Arbeiten ermglichen.

Wenn ein LED Panel dann auch noch wasserdicht ist und bestimmte Standards wie IP, IP, IP oder IP erfllt, kann es auch outdoor also im Auenbereich oder im Feuchtraum also insbesondere Bad und Dusche eingesetzt werden.

Es muss dann lediglich noch ein entsprechender Schalter Phasendimmer installiert werden.

Ein dimmbares LED Panel oder eines das nachtrglich mit einem Dimmer ausgestattet wurde kann unterschiedlichen Stimmungen und Tageszeiten angepasst werden und so in sekundenschnelle von Arbeitsatmosphre auf romantische Abende angepasst werden.

Hier gelangst du direkt zu den LED Panels fr Bad und Auenbereich

Hier gelangst du direkt zu den dimmbaren LED Panels

Die verkrzte Antwort auf diese Frage lautet ja. Nicht jeder mchte sein LED Panel als Flchenbeleuchtung dort nutzen, wo es vor Regen, Schnee, Wind und insbesondere Wasser geschtzt ist. Daher gibt es am Markt wasserdichte bzw. wettergeschtzte LED Panel. Diesen LED Paneln kann weder Wasser noch Staub etwas anhaben. Auch starke Temperaturschwankungen machen ihnen nichts aus.

Ihre Helligkeit ist also bei deutlich niedrigerem Verbrauch viel hher als die von frheren Glhbirnen.

Wer es sogar noch professioneller mag, kann das RGB LED Panel auch noch mit einer DMXSteuerung kombinieren und es so an moderne Bhnen und Veranstaltungstechnik anpassen.

Damit du dein LED Licht Panel richtig aufbaust anbaust und auch keinen Fehlkauf ttigst, haben wir diese Webseite ins Leben gerufen. Bei uns findest du ausfhrliche Informationen, Produktvorstellungen, News, Vergleiche und Angebote.

Hier gelangst du direkt zu den LED Panels Grow

Stattdessen greift man heute wieder auf die eigentliche Maeinheit fr die Helligkeit zurck Lumen.

Die derzeitmeist verkauften und damit auch beliebtesten Hersteller am Marktfindest du hier.

In Bars, Clubs oder Discos werden LED Panel gern rbig eingesetzt. Sogenannte RGB LED Panel knnen so nicht nur klassisches weies Licht produzieren, sondern in den unterschiedlichsten Farben die unterschiedlichsten Stimmungen und Atmosphren produzieren.

Zu den besten Schnppchen und Sonderangeboten geht eshier entlang.

Hier gelangst du direkt zu den besten LED Panels bei Amazon

Hier lohnt sich ein Quervergleich unterschiedlicher LED Panels. Wenn zwei Panels die gleiche Helligkeit bieten, ist das mit der niedrigeren WattAngabe zu bevorzugen.

Ebenso unterschiedlich ist das Licht der verschiedenen LED Leucht Panel So gibt es solche mit warmweiem Licht ebenso wie solche mit Tageslicht. Dadurch kann das fr den Einsatzort bentigte Licht von vornherein ausgewhlt werden.

Whrend man frher bei Glhbirnen die angegebene WattZahl als Gradmesser fr die Helligkeit verwendete, ist dies heute bei LEDLeuchten nicht mehr gebruchlich, da die WattZahl nur noch etwas ber den Verbrauch aussagt.

HelligkeitEin wichtiges Kriterium beim Kauf eines LED Panels oder LED Panel Deckenleuchte ist fr Viele die Helligkeit. Es gibt LED Panels in den verschiedensten Helligkeiten.

Grundstzlich lautet die Antworte auf diese Frage berall. In den allermeisten Fllen findet das LED Panel im Wohnzimmer, in der Kche, in Bros, in Badezimmer und Dusche Verwendung. Aber auch im Hanf und GrowBereich, der Fotografie, der Industrie und im Aquarium oder Terrarium trifft man diese spezielle Art der Flchenbeleuchtung an.

Es gibt mittlerweile auch LED Panels und Deckenleuchten, deren Farbtemperatur einstellbar ist. Das ermglicht dann eine flexible Nutzung am gleichen Einsatzort. Wenn bspw. das Wohnzimmer hin und wieder auch als Bro genutzt wird.

Die derzeitmeist verkauften und damit auch beliebtestenLED Panel am Markt findest du hier.

Ja, grundstzlich lassen sich alle LEDChips dimmen. Ob ein LED Panel dimmbar ist, hngt demnach nur vom Netzteil/Treiber ab. Wenn das Netzteil das Dimmen zulsst, kann die Helligkeit des LED Panels stufenlos geregelt werden.

LED Panels gibt es in den unterschiedlichsten Leistungsstrken von Watt bis Watt und dementsprechend auch mit den unterschiedlichsten Eingangsspannungen von Volt bis bzw. Volt.led panelLEDPanel Test

lightSalt and Light Catholic Media Foundation

March 23, 2018 | LED Panel Lights | Permalink

The story of the passion of Jesus Christ, from his Last Supper, to his arrest and crucifixion through the eyes and imagination of children.

Ash Wednesday is one of the most important holy days in the Roman Catholic Church. It signifies the beginning of the Lenten season, a season of sting, prayer and almsgiving. This lent, Salt and Light TV invites you to journey through Lent with us towards Easter.

Lets begin today with highlights from the Popes weekly general audience from Paul VI Hall, where he continued his catechesis on the Mass focusing his attention on the Eucharistic Prayer. Thr…read more

The firstever VaticanHackathon is a computer programming marathon that starts today at the Vatican, with the full support of the Pope, Vatican offices, and student volunteers from Harvard and MIT….read more

The Pope Speaks to Priests, Bishops, and Other Shepherds. This comprehensive collection of s by Pope Francis is an absolute gem and an indispensable resource for any pastoral minister in the Church…

SL Photo TFI Director Sebastian Gomes and Cinematopgrapher Peter Turek film in Aguilares, El Salvador on Feb , The crew of The Francis Impact traveled to El Salvador from Febr…read more

Rev. Anthony ManSonHing is a priest of the Diocese of Sault Ste. Marie. He is currently serving as Pastor of Our Lady of Fatima and SteMarie parishes in Elliot Lake, Ontario as well as Pastor of SteFamille parish in Blind River, Ontario.

Washington DCs Cardinal, Cardinal Donald Wuerl has issued a detailed, pastoral plan to implement Pope Francis, Amoris Laetitia, in his Archdiocese. This plan is the first of its kind ever to be im…read more

We share the joys and hopes of the Gospel through television, radio, print, and online media. Our work unites people together through prayer, celebration, reflection, education, authentic dialogue and enquiry, thoughtprovoking reporting and stories of ith and action. We also challenge believers to grow in the knowledge of the ith and the Catholic tradition in its many expressions. We strive to offer an invitation to all peoples, especially those on the peripheries of ith and the Church, to draw closer to the Lord and experience the community of the Church.

The Church of today, like yesterday, is largely involved in the lives of the most fragile people across every continent. Our journalist and reporter

Reflections by Fr. Thomas Rosica, CSB Jesuss final words, as he lay dying on the cross, have become for us powerful expressions of the profound compassion and humanity of the one we call Christ.

It was a full house at Hamiltons Cathedral Basilica last night, as both priests and lay people received the Popes awards for various ministries and years of service to the Catholic church in H…read more

Cathedral Basilica of Christ the King

The firstever VaticanHackathon is a computer programming marathon that starts today at the Vatican, with the full support of the Pope, Vatican offices, and student volunteers from Harvard and MIT….read more

A reflection on the importance of almsgiving during the Lenten Season. Written by Esmerelda Blasi….read more

Whats more Canadian than playing hockey in a small town in rural Ontario? The Flying Fathers do precisely that. The story of the hockeyloving prie…read more

flies to the ends of the earth, to the peripheries to create a series of reports on the Churchs encounter with those who are suffering.

In preparation for the Synod on Young People, the Faith and Vocational Discernment Deacon Pedro GuevaraMann speaks with young people, taking their pulse on some of the big questions in life, and tries to identify the most effective ways to announce the Good News to young people today.

Salt and Light Magazine is a highquality seasonal publication that is widely distributed across Canada. Written in both English and French, the publication features guest columns, indepth features and highlights from Salt Light programs and initiatives.

A reflection on the importance of almsgiving during the Lenten Season. Written by Esmerelda Blasi….read more

Fr. Thomas Rosica is a priest of the Congregation of St. Basil. In February, , Pope Benedict XVI appointed Fr. Rosica a Consultor to the Pontifical Council for Social Communications.

and keep up to date on the latest from Salt Light!

Fourth Sunday of Lent, Year B March th, The Gospel for the Fourth Sunday of Lent Year B features a nocturnal conversation between two important religious teachers on the one hand a n…read more

Lets begin today with highlights from the Popes weekly general audience from Paul VI Hall, where he continued his catechesis on the Mass focusing his attention on the Eucharistic Prayer. Thr…read more

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Born on the wings of World Youth Day in Canada, Salt Light is a unique instrument of the New Evangelization. It is dedicated to being and helping others become the salt of the earth and the light of the world. Our mission is to proclaim Jesus Christ and the joy of the Gospel to the world by telling stories of hope that bring people closer to Christ and the Catholic ith.

Priests and laity were honoured by Pope Francis in the Diocese of Hamilton on Sunday, March th, . His Eminence, Gerard Cyprien Lacroix, Archbishop of Quebec and Primate of Canada, will confer the…read more

Tune in Monday through Thursday at pm ET for our minute daily current afirs edition of Perspectives, covering major Catholic headlines from around the world.

is not a catechesis or a teaching but it is a prayer, a ine reading, a personal encounter with God in Sacred Scripture. Each episode begins with a glimpse of Cardinal Collins presiding over Vespers at St. Michaels Cathedral in downtown Toronto. Lectio Divina follows immediately afterwards.lightSalt and Light Catholic Media Foundation

Beled lightst LED Light Bulbs for

March 23, 2018 | LED Panel Lights | Permalink

From the specs to the price, GEs W LED gets almost everything right.

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SHEENLYLled light

March 23, 2018 | LED Panel Lights | Permalink

SHEENLYLled lightSheenly Lighting co.,ltdBldg , Xuhui International, No. Lianhang Road, Minhang District, Shanghai , China

Carrying the expectations of all our staff and customers warm wishes, Sheenly Lighting move into its new headquarters located at Lane Lian Hang Road No., and held a housewarming ceremony early in the morning on September th.

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Philips Lighting Shares Pop on IPO Debut

March 23, 2018 | LED Panel Lights | Permalink

The move signals a historic shift for Philips, set up in as a maker of light bulbs before expanding into consumer electronics. It will now focus on its healthcare business, where it sees both high growth and higher margins than in lighting.

The IPO was one of a number of listings planned for the Amsterdam stock market this year.

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He conceded that Philips Lighting must improve margins in its professional lighting business if it is to succeed against competitors, which include not only Osram but General Electric and stgrowing newcomer Acuity Brands in the United States.

The Philips group has a market capitalization of more than € billion. It will now focus on activities including selling advanced medical scanners and devices, patient monitoring systems and information services to hospitals, as well as consumer health devices and toothbrushes and shavers.

Philips Lighting enjoyed a positive first day of trading as a newly independent company on Friday after its Dutch parent spun off the business upon which it was founded more than years ago.

With the listing, Philips Lighting becomes the worlds largest independent lighting maker, surpassing Germanys Osram.

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CEO Rondolat said potential investors had been attracted by the bulous upside in our industry in general, which is brought by connected light systems and services.

Philips had argued that the lighting business, which accounted for about a third of group sales but only a quarter of profits, needed independence to invest in developing and marketing programmable lighting systems and related services to corporate customers.

The dominant profit producer, lamps, is in structural decline, LED lamps are inherently more competitive while home systems are still too small to matter, the analysts said.

Philips set an IPO price of € Thursday night, implying a market capitalization of € billion . billion, or an enterprise value of €. billion including debt.. The shares rose eight percent to €. in early trading in Amsterdam.

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Despite the bright start to trading, many analysts are skeptical the company can maintain margins on LED lamps in the ce of competition. The companys valuationwhich is a billion euros lower than predicted when Philips began the separation process two years agoreflects such concerns.

The challenges cing Lighting are becoming clearer, but not easier, wrote Jefferies analysts ahead of the listing.

We want to be the lighting company for the Internet of things, said Philips Lighting Chief Executive Eric Rondolat.

Philips, the much larger parent company, sold a percent stake in the initial float, raising € million. It plans to sell off the rest of its holdings in coming years.

A free festival of light music and innovation

March 23, 2018 | LED Panel Lights | Permalink

A free festival of light music and innovationA free festival of light, music and innovation.

Light City is the nations only largescale international light and ideas festival. Immerse yourself in the light and art. Explore the neighborhoods. Challenge your perspectives in the . Experience Baltimores brilliance.

Multimedia artists will unveil their new installation, Nice, an examination of relationships in the digital age, at this years light city festival

Through Brilliant Baltimore, businesses, attractions, landmarks, entertainment venues and community groups illuminate their buildings and host neighborhood activities.

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Music at Light City invites the world to experience Baltimores talented music scene with uniquely curated live concerts and DJ sets each night featuring local, regional and national acts.

More Love, More Lights! Light City celebrates dozens of Baltimore City neighborhoods in addition to the amazing installations along the BGE Light Art Walk at the Inner Harbor.

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March 22, 2018 | LED Panel Lights | Permalink

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Relightd Light Camera Tickets

March 22, 2018 | LED Panel Lights | Permalink

DEFECT YELLOW LIGHT TOO SHORT FOR THE SPEED ON THE STREET

Quotas, Enforcement on Left or Right Turns, Signals which Change Too Quickly, Cameras at Confusing Intersections, Federal Guidelines

Pointing up the lack of standards, several cities formerly using Nestorbrand camera systems dont the Late Time at all, even though Nestor systems clearly had the capability to do so.

Other than the quotas, the things noted in Defect above are mostly political issues it would be difficult to use them to beat your ticket. If you would like to read more about them including Federal guidelines, seeDefect , on the expanded Home .

… with photos arranged x at the bottom? If so, its not really a ticket at all its a police trick! See the Snitch Ticket section at the top of theYour Ticket.

d The activities listed in subision c that relate to the operation of the system may be contracted out by the governmental agency, if it maintains overall control and supervision of the system. However, the activities listed [[ and inbold , above ]] in paragraph of, and subparagraphs A, D, E, and F of paragraph of, subision cmayshallnot be contracted out to the manucturer or supplier of the automated enforcement system.

This above is thecondensedVersion of Defect

Vehicle Code Section . prohibits pay per ticket contracts. .h says

There has been a shift away from ticketing people who run straight thru intersections, towards ticketing drivers who roll a right turn. It has become the profit center of most systems, and some of the newest contracts between cities and red light camera providers acknowledge the economic importance of rolling right enforcement by it acontractual obligation.

This above is thecondensedVersion of Defect

Interview of Saunders in Dec. , Wall Street Journalcolumnheadlined Can the RedLight Camera Be Saved? Moneyhungry politicians discredit a hopeful safety innovation.

Do you have a . or less Late Time ticket? Check out Defect , below.

At trial, some defendants with blurry ce photos have successfully raised reasonable doubt in the judges mind by showing him a snapshot of them together with similarlooking mily members or friends.

From sample ticket at the end of aNestor brochure.

At a trial, Foundation is the introductory evidence necessary to eslish the admissibility of other evidence.

In the US, red light camera tickets are distributed by US Mail, and no other way.

AEslishing guidelines for selection of a location.Prior to installing an automated traffic enforcement system after January , , the governmental agency shall make and adopt a finding of ct eslishing that the system is needed at a specific location for reasons related to safety.

Most brands of cameras ACS, RedFlex, etc. have an additional time counter, often called elapsed time, which starts at zero at the instant the first photo is taken. It will tell you the time that elapsed between the first photo and the second. Sometimes using the elapsed time subtracting it from the elapsedLate Timeshown in thesecondphoto on the ticket will help you to figure out what the hardtoread Late Time in the first photo is. For example, here are the data boxes from the first and second photos on a typical ticket actually the same ACS one used in Defect , above.

If all these Code sections and other numbers are beginning to circle around in your head, I suggest that you go to theSite Indexand print out the Cheat Sheet available there. That way, you will have a ready reference to refresh your memory. I use it too!

. If its not you in the photo, you dont have to identify the person driving.

Some cities issue a real ticket to the registered owner of the vehicle, even when it is obvious an age and/or gender mismatch that he or she was not the driver at the time of the violation. In there was a trial court decision about that lack of Probable Cause, inPeople v. Tho. An earlier decision is in Section IIIB of Judge Ronald Styns Aug. , ruling in People v. John Allen. Also see Set on the Culver City Docs .

In June the mainstream media revealed that the LA County Superior Court was not reporting ignored red light camera tickets to the DMV. By the following month, payment of tickets had dropped in half. To bring their ticket revenue back up, some cities began to issue a lot more tickets. Baldwin Park, Commerce, Covina, Culver City, Hawthorne, Lynwood, Santa Clarita, South Gate, Walnut and West Hollywood more than half of the red light camera cities in LA County increased ticketing by more than . For more info, see Set on the LA County Docs . Ticketing also increased or more in some cities outside of LA County Corona, Garden Grove, Highland, Los Alamitos, Oakland, Redding, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Mateo, Santa Ana, South San Francisco, Stockton and Victorville.

Interview of James Saunders, President of RedFlex until Mar. , in Dec. , Wall Street Journalcolumnarchived copy with headline, subheadline and first line

This above is thecondensedVersion of Defect

If you want more details, the original uncondensed version is atDefect on expanded Home .

At least one city used to do what the three bills proposed Until Aug. the City of LA cited its rolling right turns under Subsection b of CVC , instead of a, which resulted in a muchlower fine. And a few judges in other cities offer reduced fines to defendants with rolling right tickets.

has been issued by a peace officer or by a qualified employee of a law enforcement agency

Trial transcripts, and decisions, are available.

In other words, contrary to the misleading fixed fee language, RedFlex will get less money if there are fewer tickets, and more money if there are more.

You may need a magnifying glass, a pocket calculator, or a crystal ball !

If all these Code sections and other numbers are beginning to circle around in your head, I suggest that you go to theSite Indexand print out the Cheat Sheet available there. That way, you will have a ready reference to refresh your memory. I use it too!

B The camera has been aimed, as in the first example above, so that the signal head other arrow is visible, and the visible light you see is yellow, not red. Its best to check a ticket with small red time /th or /ths of a second Ror Rin the top photo on the ticket. See also Defect , below.

If you dont yet have a ticket but want to be prepared in case you get one, be sure to read and follow the links in the first two paragraphs above.

Mr. Saunders [President of RedFlex] suggests jurisdictions refrain from issuing a [rolling right] ticket except when a pedestrian is in the crosswalk.

For more info about right turns, read the expanded versions of Defects and .

The now almostobsolete but still used in some locations ACS wet film mm cameras print /th of a second as R. While its not a /th of a second ticket, the top photo in Defect above is a good example of a ticket from an ACS mm camera. The tenths digit is smaller than the rest and is always very hard to read; to be sure of what the tenths digit is, you may need to call the issuer of the ticket. On the example, the Late Time is . second, ed as Rin the middle row on the right side of the data box.

j If a governmental agency utilizing an automated traffic enforcement system has posted signs on or before January , , that met the requirements of paragraph of subision a of this section, as it read on January , , the governmental agency shall not remove those signs until signs are posted that meet the requirements specified in this section, as it reads on January , .

RedFlex rep Mark RiggsI can say that most intersections that have right turns enforced continue to produce consistent numbers.

The lack of a forwardcing Limit Line photo showing the signal may have delayed the discovery of a major problem at an ACS camera at Whittier / Atlantic in East LA. Nearly tickets issued at that intersection were reversed by the court, after it was discovered that the camera issued many tickets prematurely, possibly while the light still was yellow. This problem could occur with an ACS camera anywhere in the world. More info about the Whittier / Atlantic reversals is in the East LA section on the Camera Towns .

At right turns, the city is not required to post signs telling you stop before turning or something like that. See FAQ andSign Requirementsfor more details. But if you were cited for a turn at a corner having a sign saying no turn on red, please contact me about it.

If the original ticket was actually a ke ticket Snitch Ticket issued in your name, and you filledout the affidavit form and later received a real ticket Notice to Appear in the mail, your affidavit identifying yourself as the driver ordinarily could not be used against you in court, due to the Fifth Amendment. Unless you testify that it wasnt you driving! See the Did You Snitch on Yourself? paragraph on the Your Ticket .

A Many defendants are unaware that they ran a light. Many other defendants loaned their car to someone else. So that defendants are able to remember what they were doing on the date of the violation, or to whom they had loaned their car, California law gives the police only a limited amount of time days[]to deliver a genuine Notice to Appear to the registered owners letter box.

If the turn isnotcontrolled by a green arrow, the length of the yellow should be set according to the speed of the through traffic.

If its not convenient for you to visit the PD to view the original photos, or the police are unwilling to show them to you, you can useDiscoveryto get copies of the photos mailed or emailed to you!

If you are time/distance calculations, seeThe Math Page.

DEFECT CITY DIDNT ISSUE WARNING TICKETS FOR DAYS

The Contractor shall be required to maintain, at a minimum, the existing rates of citations issued by location….

In Sept. Gov. Brown signed a new law diminishing a defendants ability to object on hearsay grounds. See SB of , on the Action/Legis .

A Nov. , revision to the MUTCD requires California cities to have reset their yellows for through movements, not turns based upon the th Percentile Speed of traffic rounded up to the next mph increment, by Aug. , . Some yellows could be . or . longer. The Cities of San Mateo and Daly City iled to reset their yellows prior to the Aug. deadline, and in late announced they would be refunding or canceling nearly tickets issued Aug. or later. The City of Los Alamitos needs to refund or cancel about tickets, but may resist doing so. The City of Oxnard needs to refund several hundred tickets, but may resist doing so. For more details about the new requirement, see the Expanded version of Defect .

The original uncondensed version is atDefect on expanded Home .

Some ACS Limit Line photos show no signalat all.

RedFlex holds apatenton a method to alter/intensify portions of photos.

During the first three years of this sites existence I attended traffic court twice a week, and there is an extensive chronology of those visits in the Culver City, Inglewood and Hawthorne sections on the Camera Towns . Even if your ticket is not from one of those three cities, you may find the information there to be useful.

Our research in Gardena has revealed there is no significant traffic safety impact as a result of the use of the red light cameras. At almost every intersection where we have cameras, collisions have remained the same, decreased very slightly, or increased depending on the intersection you examine. When combining the statistics of all the intersections, the overall consensus is that there is not a noticeable safety enhancement to the public.

All information, documents and data posted on this website has been obtained legally, primarily from case documents provided by defendants, from media reports, from government websites, and from requests made under the California Public Records Act Govt. Code .

Defect blurry photo of the driver is the one which gets the most cases dismissed if the defendant you takes the case all the way to a notguilty trial.

Is your ticket from a town in LA County, or signed by the LA County Sheriff? If so, you may be able to ignore it! Read the Countywide Information, which is Docs Set on theLA County Documents,beforeyou make any contact with the court.

Late Time is how long the signal already had been red actually, how long power had been applied to the red light bulb when your picture was taken. The red light camera industry is so new that theres no standard terminology. Thus, Late Time is also often called duration, time into red, red time, or abbreviated as TR.

Go there also, if you dont yet have a ticket but want to be prepared.

There are two other s of warnings required see the expanded version of Defect .

Please also note that this is acondensedversion of the Home/Defects . If you are having trouble finding something that you saw before, it might be something that is only on theoriginal/expanded versionof the which is still available, and fully maintained.

The original uncondensed version is atDefect on expanded Home .

Paragraph does not apply to a contract that was entered into by a governmental agency and a manucturer or supplier of automated enforcement equipment before January , , unless that contract is renewed, extended, or amended on or after January , .

Does your ticket from any California county or city look like this …

If youre notsurewhat an extension to a respond to date is, and what the difference is between an arraignment and a trial, please read the big greenConfusing Terminologybox on the Your Ticket .

From the LA County Superior Courtplanationof its decision tonotreport ignored red light camera tickets to the DMV.

In addition to the defects listed on this below, on the Camera Towns there is more discussion of the defects as they relate to specific cities or counties.

Any city utilizing an automated traffic enforcement system at intersections shall, prior to issuing citations, commence a program to issue only warning notices for days.

Traffic rules account for most of the contact by average citizens with law enforcement and the courts. Enforcement of laws which are widely perceived as unreasonable and unir generates disrespect and even contempt toward those who make and enforce those laws.

DEFECT PROBABLE CAUSE, FOUNDATION, CONSTITUTIONALITY, HEARSAY, CONFRONTATION

a The limit line, the intersection, or a place designated inSection ,where a driver is required to stop, may be equipped with an automated traffic enforcement system if the governmental agency utilizing the system meets all of the following requirements

Vehicle CodeSection .says that yellow lights cannot be shorter than the length stated in the CalTrans Traffic Manual the MUTCD. The following CalTrans le shows how long yellows need to be for a straightthru movement.

For citations identified in paragraph , the number of violations that involved traveling straight through the intersection, turning right, and turning left.

Confidential information obtained from the Department of Motor Vehicles for the administration or enforcement of this article shall be held confidential, and shall not be used for any other purpose.

Definition Theth Percentile Speedis used in the Speed Trap Law Vehicle CodeSection which requires that wherever a city wishes to use radar for speed enforcement, they must do aradar speed surveysampling the speed of to cars. The th Percentile is always higher than the Posted Speed Limit.

of the alleged violation to the current address of the

For turns Under present rules a city can set the length of the yellow for a turning movement right, or left to as little as . seconds, even on a high speed street, if the turn is controlled by a green arrow. However, in Nov. CalTrans recommended longer yellows for right and left turns where the turn lane exceeds feet in length.

Mr. Saunders [President of RedFlex] suggests jurisdictions refrain from issuing a [rolling right] ticket except when a pedestrian is in the crosswalk.

Clause found in the Nov. San Carlos and Feb. Belmont contracts.

From to Dec. . it gave a city the option to locate the signs at all the main entrances to town including, at a minimum, freeways, bridges, and state highway routes in a city with a large airport, I think that the airport should have been considered to be a main entranceorat each cameraequipped intersection and visible to traffic approaching from all directions. At a typical intersection it required four signs even where there was only one camera monitoring one direction of traffic. Most cities chose to post the intersections rather than the town entrances, and occasionally some forgot to post all four directions at the intersection.

The contract between Los Angeles County MTA Metro and ACS requires

If you have not received a ticket with photos on it all you have received is aCourtesy Noticefrom the Court, or a notice from a collection agency you will need to phone the issuing police department and ask them for a copy of the ticket.

C Certifying that the equipment is properly installed and calibrated, and is operating properly.

C Some cities leave the courts phone number off the Notice to Appear, or provide an incomplete address for the court both of which are required on theofficial form, in an apparent attempt to make it harder for defendants to have their day in court.

FOUNDATIONAL REQUIREMENT PAYPERTICKET COST NEUTRAL CONTRACTS ARE PROHIBITED

Develop uniform guidelines for screening and issuing violations and for the processing and storage of confidential information, and eslishingprocedures to ensure compliance with those guidelines.For systems installed as of January , , a governmental agency that operates an automated traffic enforcement system shall eslish those guidelines by January , .

There is nothing so useless as doing efficiently that which should not be done at all.

Dont run red lights. It is a dangerous practice Russian Roulette with a car. This website is inspired by the shortsighted cities that have chosen to rig their cameras and signals to maximize profits and minimize safety.

This above is thecondensedVersion of Defect

c Only a governmental agency, in cooperation with a law enforcement agency, may operate an automated enforcement system.As used in this subision, operate includes all of the following activitiesA governmental agency that operates an automated traffic enforcement system shall do all of the following

The original uncondensed version is atDefect on expanded Home .

Info Advice about California Red Light Camera Tickets

The known examples of illegal or costneutral contracts are Bakersfield, Baldwin Park, Bell Gardens, Capitola, Cathedral City, Cerritos, Citrus Heights, Commerce, Corona, Costa Mesa*, Covina, Culver City*, Daly City, Davis*, Emeryville*, Encinitas*, Escondido*, Fairfield, Fullerton, Gardena, Glendale*, Grand Terrace, Hawthorne, Hayward, Hemet, Highland, Inglewood, Laguna Woods*, Lancaster, Loma Linda, Long Beach, Los Alamitos, Los Angeles County, Lynwood, MRCA*, MTA/Metro, Marysville, Menlo Park, Millbrae*, Modesto, Montebello, Moreno Valley, Murrieta, Napa*, Newark*, Oceanside, Oxnard, Paramount, Rancho Cucamonga, Redding, Redwood City*, Redlands, Riverside, Rocklin, Roseville, San Bernardino*, San Juan Capistrano*, San Leandro, San Mateo*, Santa Ana, Santa Clarita, Santa Maria, Solana Beach, South Gate*, City of South San Francisco, Stockton, Union City, Upland, Ventura, Victorville, Walnut, Whittier, Yuba City, and Yucaipa.

The defect is that LEDs lightemitting diodes, the stestacting light source used in signals, can take slightly more than . second to lightup turnon after the power has been applied. If you have a ticket with a . Late Time, that turnon delay may be longer than the Late Time you were cited for. And the oldshioned, but occasionally stillinuse incandescent bulbs, take about twice as long. If your Late Time was very short or you suspect that it was, compare the brightness of the red in the first photo…

Payment [to camera supplier RedFlex] will only be made by Customer [the City] up to

If you would like to fight your ticket but do not want to appear personally in court, or cannot easily do so, you could do a Trial by Declaration, through the mail. See the Your Ticket . Or, I can refer you to lawyers who specialize in traffic tickets. I do not accept any kind of compensation, not even a free lunch, from these attorneys.

Section . of the Feb. contract between the City of Walnut and RedFlex penalizes the City if

In the California Supreme Court issued a decision in People v. Gray, about warning tickets. The Court agreed that a city must issue warning tickets when it adds a new camera to its system, but it limited that protection to benefit only those violators whose violations occurred when the new camera first became operational. So, if your city installed your camera and did not issue warning tickets for days after that installation, and your violation occurred during that period, this issue can be raised in court.

In most cities, on the day of trial not arraignment, many tickets are dismissed first thing at the request of the police, due to poor quality ce photos. First thing meaning right after the judge comes in, or right after the defendant has been called forward for his trial. If your photo is very blurry, plead not guilty, come in for a trial maybe your ticket will be dismissed. If its not dismissed first thing, the ticket still could be dismissed during the trial once the judge gets a look at the photo. To convict you, the judge needs to be convinced beyond a reasonable doubt that it is you. But you need to know that while some judges are likely to reject bad photos, others will readily accept a photo with only a fraction of a blurry ce visible behind the rear view mirror and sunglasses. If the photo is blurry and the judge hasnt noticed that or if the officer hasnt shown the photo to the judge, bring it to the judges attention. Dont say Its not me, as that would be perjury if you know it actually is you. See FAQ on the Links/Ref for more information about perjury. Simply ask the judge, Are you sure its me? Or you could say, more formally, I request dismissal of this ticket as there isnt proof beyond a reasonable doubt that I was driving the vehicle. The preceding two phrases are not testimony, so give you the added advantage that if the judge asks you, Well then, who is it? you can tell him that you have not agreed to testify.

gNotwithstanding subisiondf, the registered owner or any inidual identified by the registered owner as the driver of the vehicle at the time of the alleged violation shall be permitted to review the photographic evidence of the alleged violation.

On Jan. , Section . changed. The option to post the entrances to town was deleted and a requirement to post a sign near each camera was added. That new requirement to always post a sign near each camera may sound like an improvement over the previous law which gave a city the option to postnosigns at the intersection, but in my opinion it makes us less safe. How? See the discussion in SB on the Action/Legis .

Theres also no standard as to the number of decimal places Some red light cameras the Late Time rounded down to tenths of a second, others hundredths of a second, and some of the newest cameras have four digits to the right of the decimal place. In at least one city Culver City the number of digits varies from camera to camera.

Check the contract in your city. It may be available on the citys Documents , here on highwayrobbery. Or, you can get it by calling the city clerk, at city hall. If the contract was signedoramended after Jan. , and the quantity of tickets or the amount of ticket revenue the city gets from the court hasanyeffect upon the amount paid to the camera supplier, make a motion or add to your Trial by Declaration to exclude the camera evidence, because it was gathered illegally.

FromCry, Your Cars on Hidden Camera, by Kathleen Parker, in the Washington Post archived copy

California Vehicle CodeSection , which is the law you have been charged with violating, says

…to the brightness of that same lamp in the second photo.

EOverseeing the eslishment or change of signal phases and the timing thereof.

Early RedFlex cameras, such as Culver Citys first seven installations, used mm wet film and ed the data in bright, but fuzzy, red numerals in a strip across the top of the photos[]. They would print a /th second Late Time asRed T. .

. But if itisyou in the photo, dont say Its not me, as that would be perjury.

Mayor Rhodes Rigsby said… he trusted the website and has taken its advice in the past.

Notwithstanding Section of the Government Code, or any other law, photographic records made by an automated enforcement system shall be confidential, and shall be made available only to governmental agencies and law enforcement agencies and only for the purposes of this article.

And, of course, the police need to send it to the right address.

The burden of proof the job of convincing the judge its you is on the People the officer and his photos. See the discussion of the law in the Its Not Me! section of the Your Ticket . Youre not required to help the officer convict you the Fifth Amendment says, No person… shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself. You should politely invoke that right if the judge asks questions like, Is that you in there? or Do you recognize yourself? For more info about remaining silent, read the Fourth Step of the Its Not Me! section.

PHOTO ENFORCEMENT WARNING SIGNS TOO SMALL, ABSENT, ETC.

when car was in the middle of the intersection.

If itisyour ce in the photo, but its blurry, read on…

Vehicle Code Section . requires the posting of warning signs.

On your ticket, does the supposedly red light look yellow? To find out if it really is red, or yellow, see FAQ on theLinks/Ref.

There was no witness to the crime. The case is based solely upon physical evidence the photos and the data the computer recorded. But the police cant use evidence if it was gathered illegally. Vehicle Code . in box, below specifies things the City must do and must not do in order to legally gather red light camera evidence.

This above is thecondensedVersion of Defect

To make this concept clear, here is an extreme example Suppose youre accused of shooting a convenience store clerk, and the police have produced a gun that matches the bullets found in the clerk; the gun also has a full set of your fingerprints on it. It is almost perfect evidence just like the photos the red light cameras take except for one problem. The police obtained the gun illegally, by breaking into your house without a warrant. So, they will not be able to use the gun in court, and will have to depend upon other evidence, and eyewitness testimony, to make their case.

This requirement is not new it was first enacted, although not in exactly the same words, by Section ofSenate Bill of , which was effective Jan. , and said,

Along with defending their ticket, every motorist needs to go on the offensive. Part of each motorists handling of their ticket should be a call to their legislators. See theLegislationsection on the Action for details.

[] Think of the evidence as a house; houses collapse if they have no foundation.

You are on the Condensed Version of the Home / Defects .

Moneyhungry politicians discredit a hopeful safety innovation.

While not on an existential par with events in Syria and Iraq, someone has to worry about our selfinflicted war on ourselves and our submission to dystopian efficiency over humanity.

If yourenotthe registered owner, please note The day requirement applies to the first mailing of a Notice to Appear, which is usually to the registered owner of the car. If he or she received a genuine Notice to Appear, then gave your name to the police who then reissued the ticket to you, the day requirement does not apply to the timing of the mailing to you. But if what the registered owner received was something other than a genuine Notice to Appear maybe a Snitch Ticket?, you might be able to file a demurrer. For more info about demurring, seeDefect , Expanded.

Our judicial officers must balance their responsibility for enforcing the law with their responsibility to protect the public from abuse of those laws.

If all these Code sections and other numbers are beginning to circle around in your head, I suggest that you go to theSite Indexand print out the Cheat Sheet available there. That way, you will have a ready reference to refresh your memory. I use it too!

Despite the paragraph above, other people consider this site to be pretty reliable.

The San Carlos and Belmont contracts merely require those cities to enforce on rolling rights, without specifying exactly what will happen if the cities refuse to do so. On the other hand, the Dec. Citrus Heights contract, the Jan. Bakersfield contract, the June Napa contract, the Oct. Bell Gardens contract, the Nov. amendment of the Ventura contract, the Dec. Lynwood contract, and the Feb. Walnut contract all provide for a monetary sanction against the city.

This box is your preflight checklist go all the way thru itbefore contacting the policeor the courout your ticket. Failure to use this checklist could cost you ..

Defect is about problems where the cameras are run by ACS, which until was a ision of Xerox. ACS provides cameras to the cities of San Francisco and Beverly Hills, plus more than cameras located along the busways and tracks of the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority/MTA/Metro. ACS originally Affiliated Computer Services not to be confused with ATS, a competitor was a pioneer in the photo enforcement Industry but was overtaken by other companies offering more modern equipment. For many years ACS did not win a new contract in California, until it was awarded the Beverly Hills contract in . Tickets from older ACS cameras have a distinctive black data box . by . inch superimposed on the photos. The data box includes the cat ce trademark ofGatsometer, the Dutch camera manucturer.

If the turn isnotcontrolled by a green arrow, the length of the yellow should be set according to the speed of the through traffic.

Does your ticket have the address of the Court on it? If it doesnt, or if it says Courtesy Notice This is Not a Ticket or in small print on the back of the , Do not contact the court, its not really a ticket at all its a police trick! See the section entitled Police Going Too Far… Snitch Tickets on theYour Ticket.

California photo enforcement tickets can put a point onyourdriving record. So, they have to have a good picture ofyour ce. A picture of your license plate isnt enough. See Defect , below.

Many ACS installations still do not include a video camera, while the Industry norm is to save a video clip of the violation essential if the city wishes to issue tickets for rolling right turns. Also, in many ACS installations, the only Limit Line photo is taken by a camera cing the driver, thus does not show the signal the driver was looking at see first example below, while the Industry norm is to take two photos one cing the driver, the other a forwardcing photo second example.

A bad ce photo blurry, or picturing a driver whose name is not on the ticket is a common reason for dismissal of red light camera tickets.

or more in a mph zone or for a left or right turn violation,

of red light citations up to the amount currently due.

Section . doesnt make it clear whether a city having a preexisting system is required to issue warning tickets when it adds a new camera. As a result, while all cities issued warning tickets at the time they installed their first camera, many cities did not issue warning tickets from the cameras they added weeks or months later. Hawthorne, Inglewood, Santa Ana and Stockton are examples of cities that issued warning tickets at their first camera location only but there are many more.

Want wordforword details of how an actual photo enforcement trial goes?

A possible motive to leave it off could be so that they can cite for very short Late Times like . second without widespread criticism including some from judges about Mickey Mouse tickets. If you phone the PD to ask what your Late Time was, they probably will say that to get that information, you must come in to the police station. The visit to the police station serves to grind you down, make it harder for you to fight your ticket. See the Cerritos, Costa Mesa, Pasadena, Davis or San Bernardino sections on the Camera Towns for more information.

Locates the system at an intersection, and ensures that the system meets the criteria specified inSection ..[[See Defect .]]

had four signs full x posted at your intersection at the time you were ticketed,

A The Y… or Y… imprint see arrow in first example above on yourtopphoto assuming it is more legible than the example above isnotfollowed by

The ce photo on the ticket sent to me was very blurry. The ticket said that I could go to the police station and be shown the original photo, so I did, and it was just as blurry. Vehicle CodeSection requires that the photo be clear, so the lack of the required clear photo was part of my challenge to the ticket. Read the discussion about drivers photos on in the th Edition or in the th Edition ofFight Your Ticket, and theFoley decision . Unfortunately, a judge evidently has a lot of latitude as to what clear means. Commissioner Randall F. Pacheco, who heard my case, ruled against me, saying The driver in the picture has remarkably similar ing and cial structure.

See the Its Not Me! section on the Your Ticket

Warn your gullible friends and relatives that if they get an email or phone call saying that they have an unpaid red light camera ticket and that to avoid arrest they must purchase a debit card and provide its P.I.N. to the caller, its a scam.

If losing your case would cost you your job or your ability to get one, hire a lawyer. Hire a lawyer if you have been charged with a misdemeanor red light camera tickets are infractions, because a misdemeanor conviction can land you in jail for up to six months.

If your name is on the ticket but its not your ce in the photo,you dont have to identify the person driving.For more info on how to handle this situation, go to the Its Not Me! section on the Your Ticket .

If you havent received a ticket and have come to highwayrobbery to get informed about whats going on in a particular city, go to theCamera Towns.

In , , and defendants won appellate court decisions saying that costneutral contracts are illegal. See the expanded version of Defect B for more information.

This above is thecondensedVersion of Defect

RedFlexs newer cameras, which are digital and take seconds of video, the data in tiny int white letters on a black strip at the top edge of the photos[]best way to read them is by putting the ticket up on the window. They would print a /th second Late Time duration, TR, or time into red as either.or.. At court in Culver City I have seen some RedFlex video tickets with only the tenths digit ed. The officer told the court that this occurs when they are having a problem with their live data link.

For perspective New York City charges for all its camera tickets, and in Oct. the Layette, Louisiana CityParish Council reduced the fine for rolling rights to , from the previous .

This list of cities with cost neutral contracts may not be uptodate there could be an amendment that has not come to my attention.

b Prior to issuing citations under this section, a local jurisdiction utilizing an automated traffic enforcement system shall commence a program to issue only warning notices for days. The local jurisdiction shall also make a public announcement of the automated traffic enforcement system at least days prior to the commencement of the enforcement program.

A governmental agency that proposes to install or operate an automated traffic enforcement system shall not consider revenue generation, beyond recovering its actual costs of operating the system, as a ctor when considering whether or not to install or operate a system within its local jurisdiction.

Also see theGetting Records / Discovery, read about CaliforniasTruth in Evidencelaw, and theBest EvidenceRule.

Perform administrative functions and daytoday functions, including, but not limited to, all of the following

The original uncondensed version is atDefect on expanded Home .

Most of Defect could apply to any violation, anywhere.

The number and percentage of citations that are dismissed by the court.

For more practice reading Late Times, seethis .

In Apr. a jury awarded million to two LAPD motorcycle officers who alleged that their supervisors retaliated against them for complaining about traffic ticket quotas.Article, LA Times,

In association with the National Motorists Association NMA, an attorney prepared a defensebrief Faixasking a court in Faix, Virginia to strike the evidence and rule the underlying ordinance unconstitutional.

Was someone else driving your car, and now the police or even the clerks at the courthouse are twisting your arm, trying to get you to identify that driver?You dont have to.See the Its Not Me! section on theYour Ticket. If the mismatch between the person ticketed and the actual driver is really obvious, like a combined age AND gender mismatch, please be sure to let me know about your ticket.

While Defects , , and above could apply to a camera anywhere in the world, most of the information on this website applies primarily to tickets issued under California Vehicle Code Section ; the law in other states is different. There is some national information on the Links/Ref .

Cost neutralityis assured to Customer using this methodology as Customer

You are on the Condensed version of the Home / Defects . Only words! There is an Expanded version, with , words, atHome / Defects Expanded.

Why has RedFlex found it necessary to force cities to enforce rolling rights? We need look no further than Ventura. Before , the City was not contractually required to ticket rolling rights, and chose correctly to give it very little emphasis. Because of the low ticket volume combined with cost neutral terms by the City owed RedFlex a balance carried forward of . million. By the debt had increased despite the amendment to . million, which RedFlex was forced to forgive in as part of negotiations for a new contract with the City. See Set ofVentura Documents.

Official comment by Senator then Assemblywoman Jenny Oropeza, published in // legislative analysis ofAB of .

Does your ticket have the address of the Court on it? If it doesnt, or if it says, Do not contact the court, its not really a ticket at all. Its a police trick! See the section entitled Police Going Too Far… on the Your Ticket .

A tiny change in the length of the yellow light can have a huge effect on the quantity of violations. The economic effect is so significant that some red light camera contracts those in Bell Gardens, Citrus Heights, Corona, and Hawthorne appear to provide for a monetary penalty against the city if city traffic engineers lengthen the yellows.

Sometimes, the officer forgets to the ce photo to the judge. If that happens, wait until he finishes all his testimony and the judge signals you that it is your turn, then make a motion to dismiss for lack of proof that you were driving the car.

DEFECT TICKET MAILED LATE OR TO THE WRONG ADDRESS,

For more details, see the citys entry on the Camera Towns .

If you go to to look at your ACS photos, the forwardcing photo may or may not be there assuming one was taken. If you really want to know, for sure, if a forwardcing photo exists for your ACS citation, I suggest asking forDiscovery.

A contract between a governmental agency and a manucturer or supplier of automated traffic enforcement equipmentmayshallnot include provision for the payment or compensation to the manucturer or supplier based on the number of citations generated, or as a percentage of the revenue generated, as a result of the use of the equipment authorized under this section.

Except for court records described in Section of the Government Code, the confidential records and information described in paragraphs and may be retained for up to six months from the date the information was first obtained, or until final disposition of the citation, whichever date is later, after which time the information shall be destroyed in a manner that will preserve the confidentiality of any person included in the record or information.

Under present rules a city can set the length of the yellow for a turning movement right, or left to as little as . seconds, even on a high speed street, if the turn is controlled by a green arrow. However, in Nov. CalTrans recommended longer yellows at those locations where the turn pocket exceeds feet in length.

For more information on how to read the Late Time or Red Time printed on your ticket, see the How to Read Your Late Time box in Defect , below.

Gardena, California Police Chief Edward Medrano, instaff reportprepared for city council meeting.

This above is the only version of Defect the version on theExpandedHome / Defects is identical.

In California, Vehicle CodeSection says in part, with emphasis added

Many red light cameras imprint the Late Time right on the top[]photo on your ticket but the format has not been standardized. So here is how some of the more common cameras would a Late Time of /th one tenth, or . of a second.

The price In , and there were bills in the legislature to reduce the fine on rolling rights. None passed! See theLegislationsection on the Action .

See myLibrary of Transcripts, Briefs, Decisions.

Atone trialthe defendant argued that the photo could be any one of a number of his employees who had access to the truck. The photo wasnt totally blurry the officer quipped, Do you have a twin brother? and the judge said, I think itisyou I see shades and a nose. But then the judge a retired judge brought in temporarily said, after taking another look at a blowup of the photo, If he murdered somebody, I dont see why I should treat a traffic case any differently. He then dismissed the case.

Defect applies when the installation of your camera wasnotfollowed by a day period during which warning tickets were issued by that camera, and you got your ticket during that period. This is most likely to happen if your camera was not the first one installed in town.

Basically theyre [the camera company] saying were going to make money off that intersection if we put it there. Its a half million dollars in fines that we would not normally have collected.

DEFECT SIGNAL LIGHT BULBS TAKE A WHILE TO COME ON

In California, photo enforcement tickets can put a point onyourdriving record. So, they have to have a picture ofyour ce. A picture of your license plate doesnt eslish thatyoudid the crime it only eslishes that yourcardid it, and anyone could have been driving your car.

h A contract [with a red light camera supplier]… may not include… payment… based on the number of citations generated, or as a percentage of the revenue generated…

B And since red light camera Notices to Appear are not handed to you in person by a motor officer who obtains your signature, the law requires the police to obtain some evidence that the Notice to Appear was actually mailed.

The original uncondensed version is atDefect on expanded Home .

Portion of Second photo, taken approx. sec. later,

issued warning tickets for the first days of operation ofyourcamera see Defect ,

changing the pay to its camera vendor to flat rate.

Have a quick look at the recentcourt decisions, which could be of use to every defendant.

I have modified portions of this website to make it more accessible from handheld devices. If you are having trouble reaching it, are having to do a lot of scrolling to find what you want, or just have a design suggestion, please let me know. The modifications should be invisible when the site is viewed on a laptop or desktop computer.

Did they mail your ticket within calendar days of the date of the violation? If it took even one day longer than that, have a look at Defect , below.

Most of the information on this website applies only to tickets issued in California.

Theoriginalce photo ed at your trial will be clearer than the copy you received in the mail or saw on the Internet. If you are trying to decide whether to fight the ticket based on a blurry photo and would like to see how good the original is, call the phone number on the ticket often in the upper corner on the back and make an appointment to go to the police department and look at the photos. At the appointment, ask the officer to blow up the ce photo, just like he does at a trial. For a preview of what your visit to the police department might be like, read Contact the Police, which is part of Step One of the Its Not Me! section on the Your Ticket .

For more info about signs, the original uncondensed version is atDefect on the expanded Home .

You should doublecheck any material obtained here, before you use it.

If cities wish to reduce left turn running, they should lengthen the yellow, make sure the green arrow is long enough and demandactivated and that the turn pocket is large enough for the demand. In most cities, the photo enforcement on left turn arrows is a form of Churning.

Instead, first have a look at Churning in Defect , below. Then, come back here.

DRegularly inspecting and maintaining warning signs placed under paragraph of subision a.

Are you worried that you may have had your picture taken in the last few days? See FAQs and on theLinks/Ref.

Ordinarily, when someone wants to use a document, letter or photo as evidence in court, they need to bring in a live person to testify as to the documents authenticity and accuracy. And the opposition gets to crossexamine confront that person. Without that live authentication, the document could be ruled to be hearsay, and excluded from evidence. There is an exception to the hearsay rule, for documents created by a government employee but many of the documents the police present in court have been created by a private companys employees who are not government employees, thus have no official duty to report accurately. Numerous recentdecisions by California Appellate Divisions and the US Supreme Courthave addressed this hearsay/confrontation issue.

B Ensuring that the equipment is regularly inspected.

FMaintaining controls necessary toassureensurethat only those citations that have been reviewed and approved by law enforcement are delivered to violators.

Typical nonACS forwardcing Limit Line photo, shows signal the driver is looking at.

[The prohibition of cost neutral contracts, formerly Subsection .g, is now at .h.]

A tiny increase in the length of the yellow makes a huge decrease in the number of left turn violations.

Under present rules a city can set the length of the yellow for a turning movement left, or right to as little as . seconds, even on a high speed street, if the turn is controlled by a green arrow. However, in Nov. CalTrans recommended longer yellows at those locations where the turn pocket exceeds feet in length.

Please note that there isnorequirement to post signs at right turns, telling you stop before turning or something like that.

[] If the postmark is more than calendar days after the date the violation occurred, theserviceof the Notice to Appear could be defective. Vehicle Code Sec. says, The giving of notice by mail is complete upon the expiration of four days after deposit of the notice in the mail….

Aggressive fighting for the right is the noblest sport the world affords.

Do you have a cover on your license plate? Or a reflective spray? You could get a ticket! See FAQ , on theLinks/Ref.

Is the Late Time on your ticket also called red time, red T or TR . second or less? Have a look at Defect , below.

The number of alleged violations captured by the systems they operate.

email exchange about proposed new camera in Menlo Park

This above is thecondensedVersion of Defect

If the ticket now in your name was originally issued in someone elses name, and that person filledout the affidavit form and supplied your name to the police, their written affidavit identifying you as the driver cannot be used against you in court. And I have never seen an officer/prosecutor even try to do so, because it would so clearly be hearsay. If he was really desperate to convict you, the prosecutor would need to subpoena the person who identified you to come to court and testify in person; I have never seen that happen, either. See the Were You Snitched On? paragraph on the Your Ticket .

I am not a lawyer, or a government insider, and may have some erroneous or incomplete materials on this site. You should doublecheck any material obtained here, before you use it. Use the link in the Reference section on the Links/Ref to review the latest version of any Vehicle Code section upon which you are basing your defense.

*This city recently amended its contract, or signed a new one,

Following the ticket reversals in East LA, some cities with ACS installations added an extra camera to take a forwardcing photo. But some California cities did not. Several appeal court decisions Bohl, Moore, Graham, Salseda have addressed that issue.

A promising industry betrayed by the behavior of its customersthats the story of the redlight camera business.

This ACS Limit Line photo shows only the signalopposingtraffic is looking at upper right arrow.

The revised version of Section . says that would be a transition period, to allow cities time to change their signs to comply with the new law. Cities were required to complete the changes by Jan. , .

e The printed representation of computergenerated information, video, or photographic s stored by an automated traffic enforcement system does not constitute an outofcourt hearsay statement by a declarant under Division commencing with Section of the Evidence Code.

If you subtract the elapsed time of . shown in the middle row, left side, below from the elapsed Late Time of . Rin middle row, right side, below you get ., which confirms that the Late Time shown in the first photo middle row, right side, above is . after rounding off.

An ACS camera in your town could have this problem if either AorB exists.

I update portions of this website almost daily. If you are a return visit after an absence of more than a day, I recommend that you hit the reload or refresh buttons, to make sure you have the latest version of the youre interested in.

The defects below are listed in the chronological order they came to my attention, with the newest ones at the end. So, the numbers dont necessarily reflect their significance.

At your red light camera ticket trial, the officer will testify first, and he is supposed to begin his testimony by laying the foundation.[]Without having to be reminded to do it, most officers will give a brief foundational speech sometimesverybrief saying that they posted warning signs Defect , made announcements days before starting up the system, gave warning tickets for days Defect , have long enough yellows Defect , etc.

In early a bill to allow the installation of automated speed cameras photo radar in California will be submitted for consideration by our Legislature in Sacramento. Now early is the time to phone your legislators state senator and assemblyperson and ask them to vote no.More info is at the top of theAction/Legis.

If it is noticeably brighter in the second photo, then you have photographic evidence that you were not cing a steady red at the time you were at the limit line, and you should be sure to read the Expanded version of Defect .

Fixed fee of , Per Month Per Designated Intersection Approach…

Condensed from Table D Minimum Yellow Light Change Interval, California MUTCD Edition, as revised Nov. ,

Was your ticket for aright turn? If so, see Defect below, and theLegislationsection on the Action/Legis .

Sgt. Sharon KaufmanMy only question is since most of the violations are right turns, how long would that be sustainable?

This site is a freeofcharge public service. I am not selling anything, and cannot accept donations. I ask each person who uses this website to call their legislators and their auto club. See the Action .

See the Links/Ref for more information about the NMA.

Paying red light camera vendors [suppliers] based on the number of tickets issued undermines the publics trust and raises concern that these systems can be manipulated for profit.

Ticket quotas are illegal in California seeCVC .

Unchanged was the requirement for signs to comply with CalTrans specifications They must be at least wide and inches high, the bottom edge must be at least feet above the pavement level feet in rural areas, and they must be laidout per this CalTrans design…

b Prior to issuing citations under this section, a local jurisdiction utilizing an automated traffic enforcement system shall commence a program to issueonly warning notices for days.

MOTION TO STRIKE EVIDENCE AND CHALLENGE CONSTITUTIONALITY

Traffic rules account for most of the contact by average citizens with law enforcement and the courts. Enforcement of laws which are widely perceived as unreasonable and unir generates disrespect and even contempt toward those who make and enforce those laws.

Did your ticket come by email instead of snail mail? Its a trick! See the Other Confidence Men section in the Snitch Ticket section on theYour Ticket.

If you were ticketed for a left or right turn, Defect may not be the place to start, because present California rules allow a city to set the yellow light for a left or right turn to as short as . seconds, even on a high speed street, if the turn is controlled by a green arrow.

If the mismatch between the person ticketed and the actual driver is really obvious, like a combined age AND gender mismatch, please let me know about your ticket.

Issuing warning tickets may be a foundational requirement read the Gray decision Defects s and are others.

i A manucturer or supplier that operates an automated traffic enforcement system pursuant to this section shall, in cooperation with the governmental agency, submit an annual report to the Judicial Council that includes, but is not limited to, all of the following information if this information is in the possession of, or readily available to, the manucturer or supplier

Text of California Vehicle CodeSection ., effective Jan. , , with the significant changes effective Jan. , due to SB of see the Action/Legis shown inItalicandstrikeout

Is your photo enforcement ticket or other ticket seriously delinquent or in collection? There is an amnesty, which started Oct. , . For more info, clickhereor guide yourself to the big box near the top of Section , Handling Your Ticket, on the Your Ticket .

Under present California rules which may be revised the minimum yellow for a left turn or right turn phase is . seconds, no matter how high the posted speed limit is, if the turn is controlled by a green arrow.

For information on how to measure the length of the yellow, see the big yellow box in Step of the Handling Your Ticket section on the Your Ticket .

For the expanded original version, clickHome / Defects Expanded.

For more about left turns, read the expanded versions of Defects and .

Opened Sept. , . Content updated Jan. , .

The number of traffic collisions at each intersection that occurred prior to, and after the installation of, the automated traffic enforcement system.

A driver cing asteadyred… shall stop….Emphasis added.

If your ticket is not in , or isnt clear enough so that you cant perform the checks above, you can call the police department and ask them what the numbers are, or go in and look at their copy of the ticket. Their phone number should be on the back of the ticket. Before you go visit the police, read II., below.

This above is thecondensedVersion of Defect

SOME FOUNDATIONAL REQUIREMENTS WARNING SIGNS, WARNING TICKETS, LONGENOUGH YELLOWS, AND WRITTEN GUIDELINES

If you want more information abouttraffic school,see the traffic schoolEditorialon the Links/Ref .

…the City or Police waives more than percent of valid violations forwarded to the Police for acceptance….

Contributions ofinformationare welcomed. See theHelp Info Neededsection on the Action . And if you operate a website or a blog, please mention highwayrobbery.

Identifies the system by signsposted within feet of an intersection where a system is operatingthat clearly indicate the systems presence and are visible to traffic approaching from all directionsin which the automated traffic enforcement system is being utilized to issue citations.or posts signs at all major entrances to the city, including, at a minimum, freeways, bridges, and state highway routes.A governmental agency utilizing such a system does not need to post signs visible to traffic approaching the intersection from directions not subject to the automated traffic enforcement system. Automated traffic enforcement systems installed as of January , , shall be identified no later than January , .[[Also see subsection j, below.]]

While some of the brief would apply only to a ticket in that city, many sections of it might be useful in California.

If you have a ticket for a turn, left or right, call your State legislators, and your auto club, and complain about the heavy ticketing and the way outofproportion fine. For phone numbers see theLegislationsection on the Action .

This defect is applicable only to tickets with small Late Times . two tenths of a second, or milliseconds or less. If you cant find your Late Time, or cant read it, see the big purpleish box, below.

will never pay RedFlex more than actual cash received.Bolding added.

Many cities are ignoring that law. An example is Marysville, where the contract signed Dec. , says

Is your ticket for a straight thru violation not a turn and the yellow seemed shorter than normal? Videotape that signal! And have a look at Defect , below.

This citys contract is available in the citys entry on the Camera Towns or in the citys Documents .

The original uncondensed version is atDefect on expanded Home .

…according to data posted on highwayrobbery that Napa Police Capt. Jeff Troendly said looked spot on.

The number of citations issued by a law enforcement agency based on information collected from the automated traffic enforcement system.

the amount of cash received by Customer from Yuba County through the collection

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